Google’s Library and Books Projects involve the digitization of complete copies of millions of print books without the authors’ or copyright owners’ permission. Google’s platform allows the public to search digital copies of the books and displays both titles and snippets of the works in the search results. On Friday, the Second Circuit Court of

The unauthorized use of copyrighted material may, under certain circumstances, be permissible under copyright’s “fair use” doctrine.  Fair use has been described as “the most troublesome [doctrine] in the whole of copyright” in that “courts are left with almost complete discretion in determining whether any given [fair use] factor is present in any particular use.”